New mechanism-based anticancer drugs that act as orphan nuclear receptor agonists
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1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes containing ptrifluoromethyl (DIM-C-pPhCF3), p-t-butyl (DIM-C-pPhtBu), and phenyl (DIM-CpPhC6H5) substituents have been identified as a new class of peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor ÃÂ³ (PPARÃÂ³) agonists that exhibit antitumorigenic activity. In this study, the PPARÃÂ³-active compounds decreased HT-29, HCT-15, RKO, HCT116 and SW480 colon cancer cell survival and KU7 and 253JB-V33 bladder cancer cell survival. In HT- 29, HCT-15, SW480 and KU7 cells, the PPARÃÂ³ agonists induced caveolin-1 expression and this induction was significantly downregulated after cotreatment with the PPARÃÂ³ antagonist GW9662. Since overexpression of caveolin-1 is known to suppress cancer cell and tumor growth, the growth inhibitory effects of the DIM compounds in these cell lines are associated with PPARÃÂ³-dependent induction of caveolins. These PPARÃÂ³-active compounds did not induce caveolin-1 in HCT-116 cells. However, these compounds induced NSAID-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) and apoptosis in this cell line. This represents a novel receptor-independent pathway for C-DIM-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in colon cancer cells. In SW480 colon cancer cells 2.5-7.5 ÃÂ¼M C-DIMs induced caveolin-1 whereas high concentrations (10 ÃÂ¼M) induced pro-apoptotic NAG-1 expression. In athymic nude mice bearing SW480 cell xenografts DIM-C-pPhC6H5 inhibited tumor growth and immunohistochemical staining of the tumors show induction of apoptosis and NAG-1 expression. Thus, the PPARÃÂ³-active compounds induce both receptor-dependent and-independent responses in SW480 cells which are separable over a narrow range of concentrations and this dual mechanism of action enhances their antiproliferative and anticancer activities. Similar results were obtained for another structural class of PPARÃÂ³ agonists namely 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) and the corresponding methyl (CDDO-Me) and imidazole (CDDO-Im) esters. Structure-activity studies show that 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(psubstitutedphenyl) methanes containing p-trifluoromethyl (DIM-C-pPhCF3), hydrogen (DIM-C-pPh) and p-methoxy (DIM-C-pPhOCH3) substituents activate Nur77 and induce apoptosis in pancreatic, prostate, and breast cancer cell lines. Nur77 agonists activate the nuclear receptor, and downstream responses include decreased cell survival, induction of cell death pathways including tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and PARP cleavage. Nur77 agonists also inhibit tumor growth in vivo in athymic nude mice bearing Panc-28 cell xenografts.
Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar Reddy (2003). New mechanism-based anticancer drugs that act as orphan nuclear receptor agonists. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from