Severe plastic deformation of difficult-to-work alloys
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The present work aims to reveal the microstructural evolution and post-processing mechanical behavior of difficult-to-work alloys upon severe plastic deformation. Severe plastic deformation is applied using equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) where billets are pressed through a 90o corner die achieving simple shear deformation. Three different materials are studied in this research, namely Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-4V reinforced with 10% TiC and AISI 316L stainless steel. Microstructure and mechanical properties of successfully extruded billets were reported using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tension and compression experiments and microhardness measurements. The effects of extrusion conditions (temperature and processing route) on the microstructure and mechanical properties are investigated. The underlying mechanisms responsible for observed mechanical behaviors are explored. It is seen that ECAE shear deformation leads to refinement in α plates and elimination of prior β boundaries in Ti-6Al-4V. Decreasing extrusion temperature and increasing number of passes decreases α plate size and grain size. Refined α grain size leads to a significant increase in tensile and compressive flow stresses at room temperature. Texture produced by ECAE has a pronounced effect on mechanical properties. Specifically it leads to tension/compression asymmetry in flow strengths and strain hardening coefficients may be described by the activation of differing slip systems under tension and compression loading. ECAE of Ti-6Al-4V+10%TiC samples also improved mechanical properties due to α plate size refinement. Nevertheless, further extrusion passes should be carried out for tailoring reinforcement size and distribution providing optimum strength and ductility. ECAE deformation of AISI 316L stainless steel at high homologous temperatures (0.55 to 0.60 Tm) results in deformation twinning as an effective deformation mechanism which is attributed to the effect of the high stress levels on the partial dislocation separation. Deformation twinning gives rise to high stress levels during post-processing room temperature tension and compression experiments by providing additional barriers to dislocation motion and decreasing the mean free path of dislocations. The highest tensile flow stress observed in the sample processed at 700 oC following one pass route A was on the order of 1200 MPa which is very high for 316L stainless steel. The ultimate goal of this study is to produce stabilized end microstructures with improved mechanical properties and demonstrate the applicability of ECAE on difficult-to-work alloys.
SubjectEqual Channel Angular Extrusion
Yapici, Guney Guven (2005). Severe plastic deformation of difficult-to-work alloys. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from