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Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Switzerland
In Switzerland, a culture for low energy concepts is established. The procedure for quality assurance during design, elaboration, construction, and acceptance phases is based on detailed technical checklists. These procedures are similar to the Initial-Cx type, but we do not call them Cx activities - it is just standard procedure in Switzerland. It is often up to the operator to detect and prove that there is a lack of performance. However, in many cases the management overestimates the operator's competence for many reasons and is not aware of the high risk that the HVAC-systems may run above the economic optimum point. Taking into consideration the operator's (Facility Manager, FM) sphere of activities - structured by the change, risk, resources, and knowledge management - helps to give a structure to tasks and workflow. This leads to a process-oriented operation of buildings.
Chuard, J. (2004). Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Switzerland. Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu). Available electronically from