White food-type sorghum in direct-expansion extrusion applications
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Whole sorghum kernels were directly processed into whole grain snacks with acceptable texture. Extrudates made from whole sorghum had a harder gritty texture than those made from decorticated materials. Extrusion of whole sorghum provides significant savings in processing: there are no dry matter losses; no equipment or energy is required for decortication or milling; the extruder consumes less power and processes more material per time unit. In addition, the extruder utilized is a simple adiabiatic, friction extruder of relatively low cost. Grinding whole sorghum and removing fines did not improve product expansion during extrusion but altered the gritty pieces in the extrudates. The best products were obtained when whole sorghum (ground or un-ground) was extruded at 14% moisture. The whole sorghum extrudates had larger bubbles with thick cell walls, which made extrudates more crunchy. Decortication of sorghum improved extrusion performance and products by allowing adequate formation and retention of air cells. Decortication to remove 20% of the original sorghum weight was enough to produce extrudates with characteristics comparable to those made from commercial yellow corn meal. Sorghum milled fractions with composition and particle size distribution similar to corn meal produced extrudates with higher expansion, lower bulk density and similar texture. In addition, sorghum extrudates were rated equal to corn meal extrudates by a taste panel for appearance, flavor, texture and overall characteristics. Extrudates made from polished rice were less expanded and whiter than extrudates made from sorghum. When processed under similar conditions, sorghum extrusion required more energy than corn meal extrusion. However, whole sorghum extrusion required less energy than corn meal extrusion. Unground sorghum samples (decorticated or non-decorticated) produced harder extrudates compared to those made from ground raw material. White sorghum is a feasible option for snack extrusion because of its versatility, product characteristics, cost and processing properties.
Acosta Sanchez, David (2003). White food-type sorghum in direct-expansion extrusion applications. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from