Muscle-based facial animation using blendshapes in superposition
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The blendshape is an effective tool in computer facial animation, enabling represention of muscle actions. Limitations exist, however, in the level of realism attainable under conventional use of blendshapes as non-intersecting deformations. Using the principle of superposition, it is possible to create a facial model with overlapping blendshapes and achieve more realistic performance. When blendshapes overlap, the region of intersection is in superposition and usually exhibits undesired surface interference. In such cases we use a corrective blendshape to remove the interference automatically. The result is an animatable facial model implemented in Maya which represents the effects of muscle action superposition. Performance created with our model of a known human subject is compared to 3D scan reference data and video reference data of that person. Test animation is compared to video reference footage. The test animation seems to mimic the effects of actual muscle action superposition accurately.
Smith, Andrew Patrick (2006). Muscle-based facial animation using blendshapes in superposition. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from