Specialty sorghums in direct-expansion extrusion
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Whole-grain, high-fiber, or decorticated extrudates of excellent properties were made from white (nonwaxy, heterowaxy, waxy) sorghums or brown tannin-sorghums. Intact grains or prepared raw materials (cracked, cracked and sifted, decorticated) were extruded in a high-temperature, short-time (HTST) extruder. Waxy extrudates expanded less and were softer than those from nonwaxy or heterowaxy sorghums. Waxy extrudates had bigger air cells and thicker cell walls. Low moisture used in this type of extrusion and its interaction with the different amylose contents were the causes of the differences. Whole-grain extrudates from white sorghum had similar sensory acceptability to those from white decorticated sorghum. They had bland flavor and appearance and texture characteristic of whole-grain products. Extrudates from tannin sorghums were reddish brown due to their high levels of phytochemicals. The more expanded, softer products from whole-grain tannin sorghum were obtained when the grain was cracked and sifted. Decreased expansion was caused by higher levels of fiber and greater particle sizes (as in the extruded intact grain), and by reduced particle sizes (as in the cracked non-sifted grain). Expansion was correlated to smaller air cells with smooth walls. A simple enzymatic method was developed that isolates the 'gritty' particles from whole-grain/high-fiber extrudates, which closely correlated with expansion. Gritty particles were fiber (bran) plus undegraded starchy material. Whole grain/high fiber extrudates from white and tannin sorghums are an excellent option for food processors because of their excellent taste, appearance and texture.
Perez Gonzalez, Alejandro Jose (2005). Specialty sorghums in direct-expansion extrusion. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from