Physiochemical characteristics of controlled low strength materials influencing the electrochemical performance and service life of metallic materials
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Controlled Low Strength Materials (CLSM) are cementitious self-compacting materials, comprised of low cement content, supplementary cementing materials, fine aggregates, and water. CLSM is typically used as an alternative to conventional compacted granular backfill in applications, such as pavement bases, erosion control, bridge abutments, retaining walls, bedding and backfilling of pipelines. This dissertation presents the findings of an extensive study carried out to determine the corrosivity of CLSM on ductile iron and galvanized steel pipelines. The study was performed in two phases and evaluated more than 40 different CLSM mixture proportions for their corrosivity. An extensive literature survey was performed on corrosion of metals in soils and corrosion of reinforcement in concrete environments to determine possible influential factors. These factors were used as explanatory variables with multiple levels to identify the statistically significant factors. Empirical models were developed for percent mass loss of metals embedded in CLSM and exposed to different environments. The first and only service life models for ductile iron and galvanized steel pipes embedded in CLSM mixtures were developed. Models indicated that properly designed CLSM mixtures can provide an equal or longer service life for completely embedded ductile iron pipes. However, the service life of galvanized pipes embedded in CLSM should not be expected to be more than the service life provided by corrosive soils.
Halmen, Ceki (2005). Physiochemical characteristics of controlled low strength materials influencing the electrochemical performance and service life of metallic materials. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from