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Synthesis of controlled release drug device with supercritical CO2 and co-solvent
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The benefits of controlled release drug delivery are important to the pharmaceutical industry. With a controlled release device, local administration of a drug is possible and release profiles can be created that remain within therapeutic limits for prolonged periods. Made from biodegradable and bioerodable polymers, unwanted side effects and the need of return trips for treatment diminish. However, a usable device must be free of organic solvents normally used to dissolve large drug molecules. Many of these solvents are toxic themselves. Therefore, steps must be taken to either remove residual solvent from the final device or limit their use during synthesis. Ideally, it is desirable to remove the organic solvents from the process entirely. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) has been used as a replacement for these solvents. Carbon dioxide is inexpensive, environmentally acceptable, and safe for use in human consumables. However, many drug molecules have very low solubility in scCO2, resulting in extended polymer impregnation times. An organic co-solvent can be used to increase drug solubility, leading to a more efficient polymer impregnation. Using only a small amount of organic co-solvent, a single phase stream is possible that results in significantly increased solubility. This meets the original task of limiting organic solvents in the process and increases efficiency over scCO2 alone. This study uses supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol as a co-solvent. Ethanol increases the solubility of ÃÂ²-estradiol in scCO2 for impregnation into the glassy polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP). Experimental conditions cover a range of temperatures from 40 ÃÂ°C to 50 ÃÂ°C and pressure up to 2500 psi. The effect of polymer swelling time on the sorption process is also studied. A dual mode sorption model describes the sorption of drug into the glassy polymer, and a plug flow and stirred tank compartmental model predicts breakthrough profiles. The determined sorption parameters allow analysis of polymer conformation and suggest optimum impregnation conditions.
Bush, Joshua R. (2005). Synthesis of controlled release drug device with supercritical CO2 and co-solvent. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from