Blank optimization in sheet metal forming using finite element simulation
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The present study aims to determine the optimum blank shape design for the deep drawing of arbitrary shaped cups with a uniform trimming allowance at the flange i.e. cups without ears. This earing defect is caused by planar anisotropy in the sheet and the friction between the blank and punch/die. In this research, a new method for optimum blank shape design using finite element analysis has been proposed. Explicit non-linear finite element (FE) code LSDYNA is used to simulate the deep drawing process. FE models are constructed incorporating the exact physical conditions of the process such as tooling design like die profile radius, punch corner radius, etc., material used, coefficient of friction, punch speed and blank holder force. The material used for the analysis is mild steel. A quantitative error metric called shape error is defined to measure the amount of earing and to compare the deformed shape and target shape set for each stage of the analysis. This error metric is then used to decide whether the blank needs to be modified or not. The cycle is repeated until the converged results are achieved. This iterative design process leads to optimal blank shape. In order to verify the proposed method, examples of square cup and cylindrical cup have been investigated. In every case converged results are achieved after a few iterations. So through the investigation the proposed systematic method of optimal blank design is found to be very effective in the deep drawing process and can be further applied to other stamping applications.
Goel, Amit (2004). Blank optimization in sheet metal forming using finite element simulation. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from