Survival, attachment and internalization of Salmonella agona and Salmonella gaminara on orange surfaces
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Salmonella outbreaks associated with orange juices have been reported in the past. Though there have been studies on the internalization of Salmonella into oranges there is inadequate information on the ability of this pathogen to survive on orange surfaces, become internalized, and survive the low pH internal conditions. The objective of this work was to study the survival of Salmonella gaminara and Salmonella agona on oranges obtained from the field and retail outlets and investigate their attachment and internalization potential. These studies showed that oranges obtained from both the field and retail outlets harbored relatively high concentrations of aerobic heterotrophic bacterial populations. There were significant differences in the survival of Salmonella agona and Salmonella gaminara at 4??C, room temperature (25??C) and 37??C. Survival was highest at 37??C and lowest at 4??C for both Salmonella gaminara and Salmonella agona. Salmonella agona and Salmonella gaminara showed significant differences in recovery when the cells were treated with pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.5 buffers. The internalization studies suggest that a negative temperature differential favors the internalization of Salmonella cells into the fruit. Significant differences in the internalization of Salmonella into field and market oranges were observed with more internalization in the field oranges as compared to the market oranges. These results suggest that to prevent Salmonella contamination of orange juices adequate pre-harvest protection against pathogen contamination and post-harvest cleaning and disinfection strategies need to be employed.
Singh, Reema (2004). Survival, attachment and internalization of Salmonella agona and Salmonella gaminara on orange surfaces. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from