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Coding for the Clouds: Coding Techniques for Enabling Security, Locality, and Availability in Distributed Storage Systems
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Cloud systems have become the backbone of many applications such as multimedia streaming, e-commerce, and cluster computing. At the foundation of any cloud architecture lies a large-scale, distributed, data storage system. To accommodate the massive amount of data being stored on the cloud, these distributed storage systems (DSS) have been scaled to contain hundreds to thousands of nodes that are connected through a networking infrastructure. Such data-centers are usually built out of commodity components, which make failures the norm rather than the exception. In order to combat node failures, data is typically stored in a redundant fashion. Due to the exponential data growth rate, many DSS are beginning to resort to error control coding over conventional replication methods, as coding offers high storage space efficiency. This paradigm shift from replication to coding, along with the need to guarantee reliability, efficiency, and security in DSS, has created a new set of challenges and opportunities, opening up a new area of research. This thesis addresses several of these challenges and opportunities by broadly making the following contributions. (i) We design practically amenable, low-complexity coding schemes that guarantee security of cloud systems, ensure quick recovery from failures, and provide high availability for retrieving partial information; and (ii) We analyze fundamental performance limits and optimal trade-offs between the key performance metrics of these coding schemes. More specifically, we first consider the problem of achieving information-theoretic security in DSS against an eavesdropper that can observe a limited number of nodes. We present a framework that enables design of secure repair-efficient codes through a joint construction of inner and outer codes. Then, we consider a practically appealing notion of weakly secure coding, and construct coset codes that can weakly secure a wide class of regenerating codes that reduce the amount of data downloaded during node repair. Second, we consider the problem of meeting repair locality constraints, which specify the number of nodes participating in the repair process. We propose a notion of unequal locality, which enables different locality values for different nodes, ensuring quick recovery for nodes storing important data. We establish tight upper bounds on the minimum distance of linear codes with unequal locality, and present optimal code constructions. Next, we extend the notion of locality from the Hamming metric to the rank and subspace metrics, with the goal of designing codes for efficient data recovery from special types of correlated failures in DSS.We construct a family of locally recoverable rank-metric codes with optimal data recovery properties. Finally, we consider the problem of providing high availability, which is ensured by enabling node repair from multiple disjoint subsets of nodes of small size. We study codes with availability from a queuing-theoretical perspective by analyzing the average time necessary to download a block of data under the Poisson request arrival model when each node takes a random amount of time to fetch its contents. We compare the delay performance of the availability codes with several alternatives such as conventional erasure codes and replication schemes.
SubjectCoding for Distributed Storage
Locally Recoverable Codes
Kadhe, Swanand Ravindra (2017). Coding for the Clouds: Coding Techniques for Enabling Security, Locality, and Availability in Distributed Storage Systems. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from