A formula for low achievement: using multi-level models to understand the impact of individual level effects and school level effects on mathematics achievement
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The following study utilizes data from the High School and Beyond Study in order to predict mathematics achievement using both student characteristics and school level characteristics. Utilizing Hierarchical Linear Modeling, this study extends the body of literature by exploring how race, socio-economic status, and gender, as well as the percentage of minority students in a school, whether or not the school is Catholic, the proportion of students in the academic track, and the mean socioeconomic status of the school all affect mathematics achievement. Through this methodology, it was possible to see the direct effects of both student level and school level variables on achievement, as well as the cross-level interaction of all of these variables. Findings suggest that there are discrepancies in how different types of students achieve, as well as how those students achieve in varying contexts. Many of the variables were statistically significant in their effect on mathematics achievement. Implications for this research are discussed and considerations for future research are presented.
Parks, Kathrin Ann (2003). A formula for low achievement: using multi-level models to understand the impact of individual level effects and school level effects on mathematics achievement. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from