Is building construction, as a social project organization and production system, complicated or complex?
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A recent study of chaos in construction as a project production process and system has raised a valid question: Is construction production really complex or just complicated? More importantly, how do we know which one is the best characterization of construction? The answer to these questions is developed through a systematic story of the following topic headings: Comprehensive literature search of complicated and complex key words; development of complexity theory and complexity science – similarities and differences; behavior of complex systems – as opposite to ordered (complicated) systems; construction as a system – product (object), organization and process (social systems); implication on the project execution; new approaches to project management. Understanding complexity in construction management is important for two reasons: (1) to visualize how both complicated and complex traits exist in a construction project (an object as well as a social systems), and (2) to identify for stakeholders new types of managerial competencies and tools that reflect the understanding of complexity in construction.
Fernandez-Solis, Jose L. (2018). Is building construction, as a social project organization and production system, complicated or complex?. Available electronically from