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The Impact of Positive Psychological Capital and Perceived Support on Work Performance of Korean Expatriates: The Mediating Effects of Cross-Cultural Adjustment and Work Engagement
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This study aimed to examine the relationships between job resources at various levels, including (a) an individual level–positive psychological capital (PsyCap); (b) an interpersonal level–perceived supervisor support, perceived subordinate support, and perceived family support; (c) an organizational level–perceived organizational support; and (d) a societal level–perceived community support, and work performance in the context of an expatriate assignment. The mediating effects of cross-cultural adjustment (CCA) and work engagement on the relationships were also examined. Three theories, conservation of resource theory, job demands-resources model, and spillover theory guided this study. The variables and the Korean cultural context are systematically reviewed to develop research hypotheses. An online questionnaire survey was implemented to collect data, including 12 translated instruments into Korean. The sample size was 438 Korean expatriates in 32 countries. Descriptive statistics, reliability, correlation, common method variance, confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping were used in this study. The results of the analyses indicated that the hypothesized conceptual model was adequately supported by the results of this study. In the path analysis, PsyCap was associated with all dimensions of CCA. While perceived supervisor support was related to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and general CCA, perceived subordinate support was associated with work performance, work engagement, and interaction CCA. Perceived family support was related to task performance, counterproductive work behavior (CWB), and work engagement. Perceived organizational support was related to OCB and all dimensions of CCA. Perceived community support was associated with interaction and work CCA. General CCA was associated with work engagement, CWB, and withdrawal behavior. Interaction CCA was associated with task performance and OCB. Work CCA was related to work engagement. Work engagement was associated with task performance and OCB. The findings of this study overall supported the selected theories and related research. The significance of this study includes new insights and a deeper understanding of the relationships between multiple job resources and outcomes in the context of an expatriate assignment, which is an under-explored research area in HRD. The findings also provide several significant theoretical contributions to HRD and important practical insights for multiple stakeholders.
Positive Psychological Capital
Chai, Dae Seok (2016). The Impact of Positive Psychological Capital and Perceived Support on Work Performance of Korean Expatriates: The Mediating Effects of Cross-Cultural Adjustment and Work Engagement. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from