Comparative Economic Contribution Analysis of the San Antonio Zoo and the Dallas Zoo
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Most economic contribution studies for zoos run the Impact Analyses for PLANning (IMPLAN) model sector for museums, historical sites, zoos, and parks (Sector 493) without customizing it to a specific zoo. This research considers the question of how zoos’ allocations of expenditures and revenues change the default economic multipliers and compares a modified zoo IMPLAN sector to a default zoo IMPLAN sector. This study compares and contrasts the economic contributions of the San Antonio Zoo and the Dallas Zoo to the local and state economies using both multipliers calculated from zoo-specific cost functions and default multipliers. The IMPLAN input-output model was modified with data gathered through correspondence with the Chief Financial Officers and ran using the analysis-by-parts method. Locally, the default IMPLAN zoo sector under-estimated the Dallas Zoo and over-estimated San Antonio output multipliers. Statewide, the default Texas IMPLAN zoo sector saw the San Antonio and Dallas zoos as providing equal contributions to output when, again, it over-estimated San Antonio and under-estimated Dallas. Higher wages relative to revenue at the San Antonio Zoo were associated with smaller output multipliers. Customization of the IMPLAN production function and the percent shares of goods and services purchased locally showed a substantial difference relative to default specifications. This study provides a blue print for specifying zoo-specific information in an IMPLAN analysis-by-parts model.
Love, Jessica Kayla (2016). Comparative Economic Contribution Analysis of the San Antonio Zoo and the Dallas Zoo. Master's thesis, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from