Feasibility of Functional Fibers in Soy Chicken Nuggets
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Soluble fiber in diet provides many health benefits; however, most people in the U.S. have much less than the daily value of fiber. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a soy protein chicken nugget with added functional fibers to meat block to increase dietary fiber intake. Soy chicken nuggets were made with an industry soy formulation (30% of meat block weight replaced by pre-hydrated 3:1, wt/wt water: textured soy protein concentrate with added 10% brine resulting in 0.60% salt and 0.50% phosphates of final product). Treated nuggets were formulated to add 3.0 g of functional fibers (70% isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) and 30% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)) per serving (3 nuggets, 87 g) based on the control formula. The control and treatment were evaluated for pick-up (%), par-fry yield (%), cook loss (%), frozen loss (%), final yield (%), color (L*, a* and b* value), shear force and fiber contents (total dietary fiber (TDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF)). All data were analyzed by SAS 9.3, using ANOVA and significance was determined using a P value of < 0.05. The results indicated that treatment nuggets had lower par-fry yield (%) and freeze loss (%) (P < 0.05) compared with control, but no difference (P > 0.05) in pick-up (%), cook loss (%) and final yield (%). Also the addition of fiber to the treatment resulted in lower L* (darker color), higher b* value (more yellowness) and more tender texture (P < 0.05). Treatment nuggets contained 2.91 g TDF per serving, claimed as a “Good Source” of fiber, but the results of fiber content were much lower than the supplementation level in formula by both Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) Official Methods 985.25 and 991.43 and AOAC Official Methods 2009.01 and 2011.25, due to the limitation of these methods. In conclusion, functional fibers has the potential to be incorporated in the meat block to produce a fiber-added soy chicken nuggets, but more reliable fiber methods need be developed for determining the fiber contents in meat products.
Fang, Jiyang (2015). Feasibility of Functional Fibers in Soy Chicken Nuggets. Master's thesis, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from