Consumer Attitudes of Predicted Flavor Aromas in Steaks Created with Different Steak Thicknesses, Quality Grades, and Cooking Surface Temperatures
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Levels of positive and negative beef flavors attributes were created by cutting USDA Top Choice and Select beef top loin steaks to 1.3 cm or 3.8 cm thicknesses and cooking on a commercial flat top grill at 177°C or 232°C. The thickness and temperature combination was designed to maximize differences in the development of Maillard reaction products and lipid thermal degradation products in the steaks. A trained descriptive attribute panel, consumer sensory panel, and gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry with an olfactory port were used to evaluate steaks. As thickness and temperature increased, beef identity and brown/roasted flavor aromatics increased. The thickness and temperature interaction had the greatest impact on beef flavor attributes. Steaks cooked at 232°C and cut 3.8 cm thick had the highest levels of burnt flavor and bitter basic tastes. Thicker steaks cooked at 177°C had higher levels of umami basic taste and higher levels of positive beef flavor attributes. Steaks cut 1.3 cm thick had lower levels of brown/roasted and beef identity flavor aromatics than the 3.8 cm cut steak cooked at 177°C. Thickness by quality grade interaction was significant for liver-like and brown/roasted flavor attributes. Temperature by quality grade was significant for the salty beef flavor attribute. Consumers rated 232°C, 3.8 cm steaks lowest for overall, beef flavor, overall flavor, and grilled flavor liking, whereas the 177°C, 3.8 cm steaks were highest in beef flavor. Volatile aromatic compounds were used to calculate regression equations for beef flavor identity, brown/roasted, bloody/serumy, fat-like, metallic, liver-like, and umami, which accounted for 51, 55, 30, 35, 53, 87, and 24 percent of the variability, respectively, in beef flavor descriptive attributes. Eighteen volatiles accounted for 22 percent of consumer overall liking. Partial least square means regression biplots identified volatiles associated with flavor attributes and treatments. Phenyl acetaldehyde was most closely grouped with consumer overall liking.
Berto, Michael Chandler (2015). Consumer Attitudes of Predicted Flavor Aromas in Steaks Created with Different Steak Thicknesses, Quality Grades, and Cooking Surface Temperatures. Master's thesis, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from