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An Analysis of Gender Representation in English Textbooks used in Jordanian Schools and an Exploration of Jordanian Teachers’ Beliefs about Gender Stereotypes
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The purpose of this study was twofold. The first objective was to investigate the extent of gender stereotyping in Jordanian English language textbooks used in Grades 6, 7, and 8. The second objective was to investigate Jordanian teachers’ beliefs about gender role stereotypes in the areas of educational role beliefs, domestic role beliefs, professional role beliefs, and adult social role beliefs, in relation to three variables: gender, school type, and grade level. The first study used content analysis, using a set of procedures to make valid inferences from text and illustrations. The second study used a survey instrument. Findings of the first study revealed gender stereotyping in three textbooks that were examined (Action Pack for Grades 6, 7, and 8). The results indicated that, although some aspects have improved (e.g., low use of masculine generic pronouns), the majority of the illustrations and text examples were male dominated. All three textbooks displayed a strong bias for male characters in dominant roles and female characters in passive, domestic, or subservient roles. Findings of the second study indicated that, in general, female teachers gave significantly more egalitarian responses than did male teachers. Overall, the results showed that, while great progress has been made toward gender-egalitarian beliefs in certain domains, this has not automatically led to an enhanced position for women as workers, citizens, or family members. The findings indicate the need for studies of the gendered nature of knowledge and the role of education in shaping gender identities and gender hierarchies. This study is valuable because, to date, no studies have explored gender stereotyping in textbooks and teachers’ gender role beliefs in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, particularly in Jordan. A possible direction for future research is investigation of the beliefs of teachers in other cities in Jordan and in other countries in the MENA region. It would be enlightening to compare findings in the current study with those in countries that surround Jordan to identify commonalties and dissimilarities, as well as implications for teachers’ gender role beliefs.
Hasan, Fatma (2015). An Analysis of Gender Representation in English Textbooks used in Jordanian Schools and an Exploration of Jordanian Teachers’ Beliefs about Gender Stereotypes. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from