A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Predictive Validity of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) Scores on GPA
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Research conducted on the relationship between international students’ TOEFL scores and academic performance has produced contradictory results. To examine this relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted on extant studies centered on international students’ TOEFL scores and academic performance as measured through GPA. The meta-analysis included 47 independent effect size values generated from 40 studies. The results of this meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant and positive relationship between international students’ TOEFL scores and their GPA. As the variation across effect size values was substantial, a moderator analysis was conducted to detect potential variables contributing to this variation. The moderator variables examined in this meta-analysis included: (a) publication status , (b) graduate level, (c) test version, and (d) research setting. Of these four moderators, only the research setting was found to be a potential moderator. Studies conducted outside the U.S. were found to have higher effect size values than those in the U.S. Implications and recommendations were also discussed.
English Language proficiency
Abunawas, Mahmoud (2014). A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Predictive Validity of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) Scores on GPA. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from