The Influence of Hotel Managers’ Intentions for Green Marketing Practices: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in Turkey
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What drives hotel managers to adapt green practices in their hotel especially in developing countries with less policy and control of environmental impacts? In seeking to answer this question, the developing country of Turkey was selected as an ideal context given the lack of sustainable development throughout its hospitality industry. Applying Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as the main theoretical framework, this research studied how hotel managers’ behavioral intentions are related to determinants within the TPB, and how managerial intentions predict their green marketing behavior. In addition to the existing constructs within the TPB model, environmental attitude (as measured through the NEP Scale) was added as a modification. Ultimately, the framework aimed to assess how marketing intentions translates to actual green marketing behavior among hotel managers throughout Turkey. Based on previous studies, an online survey was designed to measure the above constructs. A census was taken of all one-to five-star hotels and boutique hotels registered to Republic of Turkey Tourism and Culture Ministry. To potentially increase the response rate of participation, the researcher offered hotel managers an incentive of planting a tree for every completed questionnaire through TEMA (The Turkish Foundation for Combating Soil Erosion, for Reforestation and the Protection of Natural Habitats). Overall, 160 hotel managers completed questionnaires (i.e., a response rate of 8.3%). The result of the study indicates that environmental attitude, attitude toward green marketing, subjective norms and perceived behavior control each significantly predict managers’ intention to practice green marketing. Furthermore, the study found a strong relationship between managers’ intention to practice green marketing and green marketing behavior. Finally, theoretical relations and several implications associated with hotel managers and green marketing were presented. Additionally, the limitations of the study followed by suggestions for improvements and possible directions for future research were discussed. This study contributes to the organizational greening and green marketing literature by increasing the understanding of how managers’ attitudes and intentions toward green marketing are associated with green marketing practices at hotels in a developing country. Although managers should seriously pay attention to environmental issues and act responsibly, they do not always behave accordingly, because their behavior is directed by some constraints. Thus, financial aid seems to be especially important in developing countries. Governments should support hospitality sector by providing economic incentives for the industry to adopt environmentally sound practices. This may include certain creating environmental requirements in the hotel environmental standardization procedures and monitoring the process throughout time. Collaboration with stakeholders in regards to green marketing will also aid in alleviating problems with the hospitality tourism sector.
Yilmaz, Nese (2014). The Influence of Hotel Managers’ Intentions for Green Marketing Practices: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in Turkey. Master's thesis, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from