Effects of Higher Carbohydrate or Higher Protein Diets with Exercise on Individual Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Women
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The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether following a higher protein (HP) diet for 10-weeks promotes a reduction of MetS and the individual NCEP ATP III MetS risk factors better than a higher carbohydrate (HC) diet, when combined with an exercise program. 633 women (age 46.2±11.4 yrs, height 163±7 cm, weight 92.7±18 kg, BMI 34.8±6 kg/m^(2)) were assigned either a HP or HC diet in conjunction with 30 minutes of circuit-style exercise 3x/wk for 10-weeks. Participants consumed 1,425±355 kcal/day while the HP group (N=371) consumed 1.14±0.5, 1.41±0.7, and 0.63±0.3 g/kg/d CHO, PRO, fat and the HC group (N=292) consumed 0.78±0.3, 2.20±0.7, and 0.60±0.2 g/kg/d. Participants were retrospectively categorized as apparently healthy (N=377) or metabolic syndrome (≥3 MetS risk factors, N=286). Body composition, anthropometrics, resting energy expenditure, lipid profiles, markers of glucose homeostasis, and fitness parameters were assessed at 0 and 10 weeks. Data were analyzed using ANOVA or MANOVA for repeated measures. The HP group experienced a greater decrease in scanned mass (HP -3.9±3.5, HC -3.0±3.5 kg, p=0.002), fat mass (HP-3.1±2.7, HC -2.4±2.8 kg, p=0.003), weight (HP -4.3±3.6, HC -3.2±3.4 kg, p<0.001), and body mass index (HP -1.6±1.3, HC -1.2±1.3 kg/m^(2), p<0.001), and tended to experience a greater decrease in waist circumference (HP -4.0±5.7, HC -3.2±5.7 cm, p=0.07). Individuals with MetS experienced greater decreases in weight (AH -3.6±3.4, MS -4.2±3.6 kg, p=0.054), body mass index (AH -1.3±1.3, MS -1.6±1.3 kg/m2, p=0.046), systolic blood pressure (AH -0.5±13.3, MS -5.9±16.0 mmHg, p<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (AH -0.4±8.9, MS -4.1±10.5 mmHg, p<0.001), triglycerides (AH -0.00±0.47, -0.23±0.73 mmol/L, p<0.001), and glucose (AH +0.01±0.73, MS -0.24±1.19 mmol/L, p=0.001) and a trend towards a greater decrease in scanned mass (AH -3.3±3.5, MS -3.8±3.5 kg, p=0.07) and lean mass (AH -0.56±2.0, MS -0.89±2.0 kg, p=0.07). Results indicate that participants following the HP diet experienced more favorable changes in body composition and triglyceride levels, and that participants with MetS have greater room for improving markers of health on a diet and exercise protocol.
Lockard, Brittanie (2014). Effects of Higher Carbohydrate or Higher Protein Diets with Exercise on Individual Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Women. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from