Dimensions of Brand Personality: A New Measure of Brand Personality in Sport
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Given highly competitive markets where numerous quality equivalent brands exist in the sport industry, a well-established brand personality of sport brands can help sport brand managers or practitioners differentiate their brands from competitors beyond utilitarian or functional characteristics. In addition, brand personality enables marketers to effectively communicate with their consumers about the brands as well as build a strong relationship. Given the importance of brand personality as a marketing tool, sport brand managers and marketers could benefit from a sport brand personality scale in order to measure their brands’ personality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was therefore to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring brand personality in sport based on the rigorous definition of sport brand personality that excludes non-human personality traits, focusing on understanding the symbolic meanings of sport brands within a specific category (professional sport leagues in the U.S.). I identified five factors (i.e., Agreeableness, Emotionality/Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness, and Honesty) and developed a valid and reliable five-dimensional instrument in order to measure sport brand personality. The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that the five-factor model has a satisfactory fit. This study contributes to the literature by (a) recognizing that defining the brand personality construct thoroughly can be a fundamental step in the process of developing a sport brand personality instrument; (b) developing a reliable and valid instrument that has five dimensional factors based on the rigorous brand personality definition; and (c) providing crucial information for brand managers or marketers to initiate effective positioning and advertising strategies.
Kang, Chanho (2013). Dimensions of Brand Personality: A New Measure of Brand Personality in Sport. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from