Energy and Reliability in Future NOC Interconnected CMPS
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In this dissertation, I explore energy and reliability in future NoC (Network-on-Chip) interconnected CMPs (chip multiprocessors) as they have become a first-order constraint in future CMP design. In the first part, we target the root cause of network energy consumption through techniques that reduce link and router-level switching activity. We specifically focus on memory subsystem traffic, as it comprises the bulk of NoC load in a CMP. By transmitting only the flits that contain words that we predicted would be useful using a novel spatial locality predictor, our scheme seeks to reduce network activity. We aim to further lower NoC energy consumption through microarchitectural mechanisms that inhibit datapath switching activity caused by unused words in individual flits. Using simulation-based performance studies and detailed energy models based on synthesized router designs and different link wire types, we show that (a) the pre- diction mechanism achieves very high accuracy, with an average rate of false-unused prediction of just 2.5%; (b) the combined NoC energy savings enabled by the predictor and microarchitectural support are 36% on average and up to 57% in the best case; and (c) there is no system performance penalty as a result of this technique. In the second part, we present a method for dynamic voltage/frequency scaling of networks-on-chip and last level caches in CMP designs, where the shared resources form a single voltage/frequency domain. We develop a new technique for monitoring and control and validate it by running PARSEC benchmarks through full system simulations. These techniques reduce energy-delay product by 46% compared to a state-of-the-art prior work. In the third part, we develop critical path models for HCI- and NBTI-induced wear assuming stress caused under realistic workload conditions, and apply them onto the interconnect microarchitecture. A key finding from this modeling is that, counter to prevailing wisdom, wearout in the CMP on-chip interconnect is correlated with a lack of load observed in the NoC routers, rather than high load. We then develop a novel wearout-decelerating scheme in which routers under low load have their wearout-sensitive components exercised without significantly impacting the router’s cycle time, pipeline depth, and area or power consumption. We subsequently show that the proposed design yields a 13.8∼65× increase in CMP lifetime.
Kim, Hyungjun (2013). Energy and Reliability in Future NOC Interconnected CMPS. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from