Design manual for excavation support using deep mixing technology
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Deep mixing (DM) is the modification of in situ soil to increase strength, control deformation, and reduce permeability. Multiaxis augers and mixing paddles are used to construct overlapping columns strengthened by mixing cement with in situ soils. This method has been used for excavation support to increase bearing capacity, reduce movements, prevent sliding failure, control seepage by acting as a cutoff barrier, and as a measure against base heave. DM is effectively used in excavations both in conjunction with and in substitution of traditional techniques, where it results in more economical and convenient solutions for the stability of the system and the prevention of seepage. Although DM is currently used for excavation control in numerous projects, no standard procedure has been developed and the different applications have not been evaluated. As this technique emerges as a more economical and effective alternative to traditional excavation shoring, there is a need for guidelines describing proven procedures for evaluation of design, analysis and construction. The main objective of this research is to develop a methodology to design retaining systems using deep mixing technology. The method will be evaluated using numerical analysis of one selected case history.
Rutherford, Cassandra Janel (2004). Design manual for excavation support using deep mixing technology. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from