Retail yields and fabrication times for beef subprimals from two grade groups
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Beef subprimals (n = 356), representing USDA Low Choice and Select grades, were obtained from a major beef processor. Selected subprimals represented the normal weight variation and standard packer fat trim levels associated with commodity boxed beef. The subprimals selected included beef rib, blade meat; beef rib, ribeye roll, lip-on, bone-in; beef rib, ribeye roll (0x0); beef rib, ribeye, lip-on (2x2) (5.08 cm x 5.08 cm); beef rib, ribeye, lip-on modified (1x1) (2.54 cm x 2.54 cm); beef rib, ribeye (IM, individual muscle); beef rib, ribeye cap (IM); beef chuck, outside shoulder clod, trimmed; beef chuck, outside shoulder clod, top blade roast; beef chuck, square cut, pectoral meat (IM); beef chuck, chuck roll; beef plate, inside skirt (IM); beef round, top (inside) untrimmed; beef round, outside round (flat); beef round, eye of round (IM); beef loin, strip loin, bone in; beef loin, strip loin, boneless; beef loin, top sirloin butt, boneless, 2-piece; beef loin, bottom sirloin butt, flap boneless (IM); beef loin, bottom sirloin butt, ball tip, boneless; beef loin, bottom sirloin butt, tri-tip, boneless (IM); and beef chuck, outside shoulder, clod M. teres major. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in or boneless retail or foodservice cuts and associated components by trained retail meat cutters. After each retail cutting test, trained technicians recorded weights of all cuts, lean trim, fat trim, and bone. All retail cuts were trimmed to an eighth of an inch (0.32 cm), unless otherwise specified. Time (s) was recorded for each-cutting test and in two major phases: opening (retrieval of the subprimal from vacuum-packaged bag) and cutting (removal of all external and seam fat, connective tissue, and separation of individual muscles, as well as producing tray ready retail cuts). In general, Select subprimals had higher saleable yields than Choice subprimals. Select subprimals had less trimmable fat than Choice subprimals, and differences in retail yields appeared to follow these factors. Few significant differences were observed for processing times between USDA quality grade groups. These data will serve as an update to the CARDS (Computer Assisted Retail Decision Support) software program.
Voges, Kristin Leigh (2004). Retail yields and fabrication times for beef subprimals from two grade groups. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from